The external energy supply to the Sun is overwhelmingly obvious even before space probes (Voyagers and IBEX) have detected it. The sunspot cycle, the surface temperature, the reverse temperature gradient and the existence of the corona in itself, are some of the outstanding evidence that point to the external energy supply that our star receives. In fact, all the basic features of the Sun are in complete disagreements (or in direct contradictions) with the concepts of the Standard Solar Model (SSM). In physical reality, our star is not an isolated celestial body, but rather it is linked permanently to the Universe - not only to our galaxy - since magnetic fields are permanently present in the building blocks of matter.

Furthermore, the Sun, like all stars, is not a self-sufficient entity, but it is externally powered by inducing the current from high energy particles (cosmic rays). And yes, its radiated energy is the result of nuclear fusion, except that this nuclear fusion is a consequence of another primary process. In other words, the process of nuclear fusion-not thermonuclear fusion- is generated in the Sun as a result of interactions between the Sun's layers and the external energy source which is transported by complex galactic magnetic fields. More importantly, the Sun converts energy to mass, not the other way around.

Nonetheless, those theoretical physicists who established and developed the concepts of the SSM had simplified it by ignoring the roles of magnetic fields and rotation. They assumed that the Sun is spherically symmetric and neutral object. Based on real solar physics, the Sun is an overall positively charged celestial object, where interaction of magnetic fields and rotation have the dominant roles on the solar surface, over the corona and in the solar interior.

In addition to that, the physical mechanism of the Heliosphere is completely governed by magnetic fields interactions. Nevertheless, the high energy cosmic particles that power the Sun are modulated by the Heliospheric Current Sheet (HCS) and the Solar Polar Fields (SPF). The increasing phase of the external energy supply is during solar minimum while the decreasing one is during solar maximum.

"The current theory of the Sun and the stellar should have been discarded a long time ago," study author Jamal S. Shrair of the Budapest University of Technology says. "A good and well-established theory should not only be free of contradictions, but also be able to explain any new observations without additional ad hoc notions."

"The SSM and the stellar models do not meet these fundamental requirements," Shrair argues. "The gaps between theoretical stellar models and observations are so huge even after all of the adjustable parameters are pushed to their limits. We've all been carefully taught in the wrong way."

Eugene N. Parker, who is considered as one of the leading experts in solar physics, wrote in his special historical review article in Solar physics: “The pedestrian Sun exhibits a variety of phenomena that defy theoretical understanding. We need look no farther than the sunspot, or the intensely filamentary structure of the photospheric magnetic field, or the spicules, or the origin of the small magnetic bipoles that continually emerge in the heat source that maintains the expanding gas in the coronal hole, or the effective magnetic diffusion that is so essential for understanding the solar dynamo, or the peculiar internal rotation inferred from helioseismology, or the variation of solar brightness with the level of solar activity, to name a few of the more obvious physical phenomena exhibited by the Sun.”

"These frank acknowledgments (or confessions) have one thing in common, misunderstood Sun, due to invalid model," Shrair says. "In fact, enigmas and contradictions facing the SSM are widespread to all basic features of the Sun, like neutrino deficiency and variability. Particularly, the correlation of solar neutrino rate with surface activity."

Strong evidence has already been found that showed correlation, between the solar rotation and the number of solar neutrino detected. Moreover, the mysteries of solar wind speed and ions acceleration, are very serious ones. For instance, why are oxygen ions in the corona accelerating faster than protons, in spite of the fact, that oxygen ions are 16 times heavier than protons?

And in general, the acceleration of the solar wind cannot be explained by the principles of the current theory. The other serious dilemma is connected with the Sun's atmosphere, because based on gas laws, the Sun's atmosphere should be only a few thousand kilometers. Instead, it is extended to great distance, where it heats up to more than a million degrees. Besides that, the differential rotations are some of the most obvious defects under the current model.

"Our star must be considered as the Cosmological candle", Sharair says, adding that the reasons for such consideration are abundantly obvious.

"First of all, when we will be able to reconstruct an artificial Cosmological candle on the surface of the Earth, and light it up then we will be able to understand and see the entire Universe, without using any detecting or imaging devices in deep space. At the same time, reconstructing this candle means possessing the cleanest and most ideal energy source, that keeps our planet healthy and provides almost all our energy needs."

"Moreover, a true understanding of the physical mechanism of the Cosmological candle means the true understanding of the history of our planet, and the current changes that are taking place on it."

"The External Energy Supply To The Sun Is Overwhelmingly Obvious And Has Recently Been Detected By Space Probes" - Jamal S. Shrair - International Journal of Current Research - 9, (07), 53742-53757 - Vol. 9, Issue 07, July 2017 - OPEN ACCESS

Featured image: NGC 2683. Credit: NASA/Goddard